5.4 Carbohydrates: Dietary Guidelines


– WELCOME TO THE FOURTH SECTION
ON CARBOHYDRATES, AND THIS SECTION IS COVERING
THE DIETARY GUIDELINES. TOTAL CARBOHYDRATES ARE 45
TO 65% OF THE DIET. REMEMBER, THAT’S A TOTAL CALORIE
INTAKE WITH THE LOW BEING ABOUT 45% ALONE,
LESS THAN HALF, AND THE HIGH BEING 65%. THESE ARE THE 2010 DIETARY
GUIDELINES. THE FIBER RECOMMENDATION
IS ABOUT 25 GRAMS PER DAY AND
THAT’S FOR WOMEN, WITH 38 GRAMS PER DAY
AND THAT’S FOR MEN. AND THIS DOES GO DOWN,
ONCE YOU’RE OVER 50. ADDED SUGAR INTAKE IS
LESS THAN 5% OF THE DIET. AND AGAIN, THAT’S A
TOTAL CALORIE INTAKE, SO IT’S A VERY SMALL
PART OF THE DIET. WHAT YOU’LL SEE IN YOUR
BOOK IS NOT GOING TO BE THE RECOMMENDATION THAT
I WANT YOU TO GO BY. WE’RE GOING BY THE AMERICAN
HEART ASSOCIATION DEFINITION, SO LESS THAN 5%
OF YOUR DIET MEANS ABOUT SIX TO NINE
TEASPOONS PER DAY. IN THE LAST RECOMMENDATION
COMING TO CARBOHYDRATES IS TO REDUCE INTAKE OF
REFINED CARBOHYDRATES. SO START WITH FIBER, LET’S JUST TAKE A CLOSER LOOK AT
WHAT IT LOOKS LIKE TO OBTAIN AN ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF FIBER
TO REACH YOUR DAILY VALUE. NOW AS WE GO DOWN
THROUGH THESE SOURCES, YOU’LL SEE A MIX OF BOTH
REFINED AND WHOLE FOODS, STARTING WITH OATMEAL. NOW IF YOU HAVE FULL OATS,
THESE ARE SLIGHTLY PROCESSED. THEY’RE JUST ROLLED AND
PRESSED AND STEAMED. THEY RETAIN MOST OF THEIR
NUTRIENT VALUE, LUCKILY, AND ONE CUP WILL GIVE YOU ABOUT
FOUR GRAMS OF DIETARY FIBER. YOU’LL NOTICE THAT THE NUTS
WILL ALSO GIVE SOME FIBER. THERE’S A BANANA,
SOUP, BREAD, THIS IS ONE OF OUR
REFINED CARBOHYDRATES, SO EVEN THE WHOLE WHEAT, THOUGH IT DOES GIVE
US A GOOD SOURCE, REMEMBER THAT A GOOD SOURCE IS
2 1/2 TO 4.9 GRAMS PER SERVING. AND SOMETHING THAT IS CONSIDERED
HIGH IN FIBER IS GREATER THAN FIVE GRAMS PER SERVING,
SO ALWAYS PER SERVING. IF WE LOOK TO BROCCOLI,
FOR EXAMPLE, WE’VE GOT A HALF A CUP AT 1.18. A SERVING OF
VEGETABLES IS ONE CUP, SO THIS ACTUALLY GETS US
A LITTLE BIT CLOSER TO BROCCOLI BEING CONSIDERED
A GOOD SOURCE OF FIBER, AND SAME THING WITH RICE
IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. THIS IS ONE CUP OF RICE WHEN
A SERVING IS A HALF A CUP, SO THAT MEANS THAT THE RICE,
HALF A CUP, IS ACTUALLY GOING TO BE
LESS AND NOT ACTUALLY BE CONSIDERED A GOOD
SOURCE OF FIBER. BROWN RICE JUST HAPPENS TO
BE ONE GRAIN THAT’S A LITTLE BIT LOWER IN FIBER THAN
SOME OF THE OTHER GRAINS, BUT LOOK AT THE APPLE. ONE MEDIUM APPLY IS
GOING TO BE OVER FOUR GRAMS. NOW IF WE TAKE A
LOOK AT THE PORK, YOU’LL NOTICE THAT THERE
IS ZERO GRAMS OF FIBER. THERE IS NO FIBER IN
ANIMAL FOOD AT ALL, AND ALSO THERE IS VERY
LITTLE CARBOHYDRATE, IF ANY. NOW REMEMBER, ANIMALS DO STORE
A CARBOHYDRATE AS GLYCOGENS, JUST AS WE DO. AND THAT GLYCOGEN IS
ACTUALLY BROKEN DOWN INTO LACTIC ACID AS SOON AS
THE ANIMAL IS SLAUGHTERED, SO NONE OF THAT GLYCOGEN
IS LEFT FOR CONSUMPTION. AND REMEMBER, DIETARY FIBER
FOR US IS NOT ABSORBED. WE DON’T ABSORB THAT FIBER,
AND FOR ANIMALS, IT’S THE SAME WAY, SO YOU’RE NOT GOING TO OBTAIN
ANY OF THE FIBER [ INAUDIBLE ] OR ANY CARBOHYDRATES WHEN
YOU’RE EATING ANIMAL PRODUCTS. SEE, MOST OF THIS IS WHOLE FOOD,
BUT YOU’LL NOTICE THAT THERE IS A CONSISTENT
AMOUNT OF EITHER FRUITS OR VEGETABLES OR GRAINS IN HERE
TO GET AN ADEQUATE AMOUNT. AND I DO WANT TO POINT OUT THAT,
YOU KNOW, SOME OF YOUR WHOLE
VEGETABLES AND FRUITS ARE GIVING YOU AS MUCH IF
NOT MORE THAN GRAINS, SO IT’S NOT AS IF YOU
HAVE TO REACH FOR WHOLE GRAIN BREADS IN ORDER TO GET
AN ADEQUATE AMOUNT OF FIBER. THERE ARE TWO MAIN
TYPES OF FIBER, SOLUBLE AND INSOLUBLE FIBER. WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT
SOLUBLE FIBER, WHEN YOU THINK ABOUT THE
FIBERS THAT FORM GELS, IT’S CALLED A VISCOUS
TYPE OF FIBER. DOWN HERE I HAVE A
PICTURE OF OATMEAL, AND THE OATMEAL BECAUSE,
YOU KNOW, WHEN YOU COOK OATMEAL
AND IT DOES FORM A LITTLE BIT OF A GEL THAT
IS THE SOLUBLE FIBER. ANOTHER EXAMPLE IS A PECTIN, WHICH OCCURS IN APPLIES OR
IS USED AS A FOOD ADDITIVE. AND YOU’LL NOTICE
IF YOU PICK UP A JELLY OR A JAM THAT
PECTIN IS ADDED, BECAUSE PECTIN IS A SOLUBLE
FIBER AND IT FORMS A GEL, SO IT HELPS PRODUCTS FORM GELS. I’M NOT RECOMMENDING
YOU EAT JELLY, BUT JUST AS AN EXAMPLE. A NON-VISCOUS,
OR AN INSOLUBLE FIBER, MEANING IT’S NOT
SOLUBLE IN WATER, AN EXAMPLE IS BROWN RICE. NOW THINK ABOUT WHEN
YOU HAVE A LIGHT, FLUFFY BROWN RICE,
IT’S NOT CLUMPING TOGETHER, THERE ARE SEPARATE PIECES THERE, THEY’RE NOT GOING TO
DISSOLVE IN WATER. THEY’RE NOT GOING TO FORM A GEL. THAT’S MORE OF AN EXAMPLE
OF AN INSOLUBLE FIBER. ANOTHER EXAMPLE IS CELERY. THINK ABOUT THE CELERY STALKS. AND IF YOU’RE [ INAUDIBLE ] STRING OF CELERY OFF,
HOW FIRM THAT IS, THAT’S AN EXAMPLE OF
AN INSOLUBLE FIBER, SO INSOLUBLE FIBERS ARE A
LITTLE BIT MORE STRUCTURAL, SOLUBLE, A LITTLE
BIT MORE JELLY-LIKE. AND HOW THEY ACTUALLY
ACT IN THE BODY ARE BASED ON THEIR STRUCTURE,
ESSENTIALLY. AND BEFORE I GET INTO THAT,
I DO WANT TO POINT OUT THAT MOST FOODS ARE NOT ENTIRELY
SOLUBLE OR INSOLUBLE, THEY’RE JUST HIGHER IN ONE
TYPE OF FIBER OR ANOTHER. SOLUBLE FIBERS ARE MOSTLY
KNOWN AS FAR AS THEIR FUNCTIONS TO WORK IN THE,
LIKE TO THINK OF IT AS THE UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL
TRACT OR OUR INTESTINES. SOLUBLE FIBERS SLOW THE
ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE, AND ACTUALLY THEY WORK
WITH INSOLUBLE FIBER, AND I’LL GET THAT NEXT, BUT THEY SLOW THE
ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE. SO REMEMBER, WE DON’T
WANT BIG GLUCOSE SPIKES IN OUR BLOODSTREAM,
SO HAVING A VERY STEADY STATE OF GLUCOSE GOING INTO THE
BLOODSTREAM IS VERY GOOD. IT ALSO LOWERS CHOLESTEROL,
AND THE WAY SOLUBLE FIBER DOES THIS IS BY BINDING
TO BILE IN THE INTESTINES. WE’LL GET INTO BILE NEXT WEEK,
BUT BILE IS MAINLY USED TO ASSIST IN THE DIGESTION
AND ABSORPTION OF FATS. SO WHEN IT’S RELEASED, IT HELPS WITH THAT
DIGESTION AND ABSORPTION. IT’S MADE FROM CHOLESTEROL. SO IF FIBER TRAPS THIS BILE
THAT’S NOT USED OR AFTER IT’S DONE ITS FUNCTION AND
IT IS EXCRETED IN THE FECES, THEN THERE IS LESS
CHOLESTEROL IN THE SYSTEM. THAT MEANS THE BODY HAS TO
MAKE MORE CHOLESTEROL. WE’LL TALK ABOUT THIS NEXT WEEK, BUT THE BODY NEEDS TO MAKE MORE
CHOLESTEROL AND ALSO TRIES TO DRAW OTHER CHOLESTEROL
FROM THE BLOODSTREAM, AND ESSENTIALLY THAT HELPS
TO LOWER CHOLESTEROL. WE’LL TALK ABOUT THE
IMPACT OF THAT LATER. THE SOLUBLE FIBER ALSO HELPS
TO SLOW THE TRANSIT OF FOOD IN THE INTESTINES THAT
ALSO HELPS WITH SATIETY AND A FEELING OF FULLNESS AND
HOLD MOISTURE IN THE STOOLS, SO ALL OF THESE FUNCTIONS HELP
DECREASE THE RISK OF DIABETES, SLOWING THE ABSORPTION OF
GLUCOSE, AND HEART DISEASE. SO THAT’S THE CHOLESTEROL, BUT ALSO SLOWING THE
ABSORPTION OF GLUCOSE, AND WE’LL GET TO THAT LATER. THE INSOLUBLE FIBER REALLY
INCREASES EQUAL WEIGHT. IT INCREASES THE BULK. REMEMBER, IT’S MORE
OF THAT STRUCTURAL SUPPORT FOR THE PLANT,
AND THAT HELPS FEEDING THE TRANSIT OF THE COLON
AND ALSO LENDS TO SATIETY. THAT’S GOING TO DECREASE
THE RISK OF COLON CANCER, DIVERTICULITIS, APPENDICITIS. FOR ADDED SUGAR, THE UPPER
LIMIT IS LESS THAN 5%. YEAH, THAT’S THE UPPER LIMIT. YOU DON’T WANT TO HAVE
MORE THAN 5% OF YOUR TOTAL CALORIE INTAKE
COMING FROM ADDED SUGAR. I’M NOT SAYING TOTAL SUGAR,
JUST ADDED SUGAR. AND WHAT DOES THAT MEAN? THAT’S ABOUT 100 TO 150
CALORIES A DAY FROM ADDED SUGAR, WHICH ALSO TRANSLATE TO
ABOUT 6 TO 9 TEASPOONS. AND I DON’T MEAN, LIKE,
IF YOU HAVE YOUR TEASPOON, I DON’T MEAN IT’S THIS
BIG HEAPING TEASPOON, JUST LIKE A REGULAR TEASPOON, SIX TO NINE TEASPOONS
IF YOU’RE ADDING IT TO, SAY, YOUR COFFEE OR TEA. AND THEN 25 TO 35 GRAMS A DAY, SO IF YOU’RE ACTUALLY
LOOKING AT GRAMS. SO THESE ARE ALL THE SAME THING. IT’S JUST A DIFFERENT
WAY OF SAYING HOW MUCH ADDED SUGAR YOU
COULD INTAKE PER DAY. SO LET’S JUST TAKE A
LOOK AT A BREAKFAST AND SEE HOW QUICKLY THIS
ADDED SUGAR CAN ADD UP. LET’S SAY YOU START WITH
TWO CUPS OF COFFEE A DAY, ALL RIGHT, AND YOU
HAVE TWO TEASPOONS, WHICH IS FOUR GRAMS A TEASPOON
PER DAY, PER CUP OF COFFEE. SO THAT COMES OUT TO 4
TEASPOONS OF SUGAR OR 16 GRAMS. YOU ALSO HAVE TWO
SLICES OF TOAST, AND A SLICE OF BREAD USUALLY
HAS ABOUT TWO GRAMS OF SUGAR, SOMETIMES IT HAS A LOT MORE,
BUT WE’LL GO ON THE LOWER SIDE, SO THAT GIVES YOU ANOTHER
TEASPOON OR FOUR GRAMS. AND THEN YOU HAVE YOUR YOGURT,
YOUR STRAWBERRY-FLAVORED YOGURT. AND MOST YOGURTS ARE ABOUT 25,
26 GRAMS OF SUGAR, BUT SOME OF THAT
IS FROM LACTOSE. AND REMEMBER, LACTOSE COMES
FROM MILK SO THAT’S A NATURALLY OCCURRING SUGAR,
THE REST IS ADDED. THERE’S USUALLY
VERY LITTLE FRUIT ACTUALLY ADDED TO
THE FLAVORED YOGURTS. YOU’RE GENERALLY GETTING ABOUT
15 GRAMS OR SO OF ADDED SUGAR. WHAT DOES THAT GIVE YOU? IT GIVES YOU ABOUT 35 GRAMS
OF SUGAR FOR BREAKFAST. REMEMBER, 25 TO 35 GRAMS A DAY, 25 IS FOR SOMEONE WHO IS
EATING ABOUT 2,000 CALORIES. I DO WANT TO SAY
WOMEN SHOULD HAVE ABOUT 25 GRAMS OF SUGAR PER DAY, AT THE UPPER LIMIT,
35 TO 38 GRAMS FOR MEN. SO AT BREAKFAST, YOU HAVE EXCEEDED YOUR UPPER
LIMIT FOR ADDED SUGAR EVERY DAY.  

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