Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports (PBIS) Webinar


(Joanne Oshel, Host)
I am going to go ahead and I am going to
pass the webinar over to Abram Rosenblatt. He is one of our CARS staff and he will get
the webinar started for us. (Abram Rosenblatt)
Well, happy Friday, everybody. It’s very good to be able to
host this webinar this morning. And I will be taking
just a few moments to introduce the Now is the Time Initiative
and provide some background, and the Now is the Time
Technical Assistance Center. And also to introduce
our speaker today, Don Kincaid from
the University of South Florida. As you can see, SAMHSA’s
Now is the Time Initiatives include several
different components. It derives from the President’s
Now is the Time plan. And there are
several initiatives that are deriving
out of SAMHSA. One is the Project AWARE
State Education project, the Project AWARE
Local Education projects, and the Healthy
Transitions Initiative. The goals of these initiatives
include closing background check loopholes,
making schools safer, banning assault weapons, and increasing access
to mental health services. And here you can
see each of the projects. Project AWARE stands for Advancing Wellness
and Resilience in Education. And the main goal is to
improve mental health literacy among youth-serving adults, and to build
process and capacity for comprehensive
mental health approaches in states and communities. Most of you in this webinar are very familiar
with this initiative because you are part of it. The Healthy
Transitions Initiative is focused on
transition-age young adults and it is designed
to keep young adults from falling through the cracks
in existing systems, and that is the
complementary initiative to the Now is the Time
overall initiative. Our Now is the Time team
is a collaboration between the Center for Applied
Research Solutions, CARS, the University
of South Florida, WestEd, and Change Matrix. We all work together
to provide technical assistance and support
services to the grantees. These include cross-site TTA,
including webinars, which is something you’re
all participating right now, on-site training by request,
online courses, peer-to-peer site visits
and consultation. And then there are
also grantee-specific technical assistance activities. These include
consultation calls, our ongoing/as-needed calls, grantee information
and resources, office hour
consultation sessions, and annual grantee
support-based site visits. Many of you who are
with sites are currently either have scheduled
or have already conducted initial consultation calls, so you should have met members
of the Now is the Time Technical Assistance Center
by phone. So we are very pleased to have a very
distinguished speaker today. And we will get to him
without much further ado. I’m just going to introduce him
for a moment, Dr. Don Kincaid, a professor at the
University of South Florida. And he’s
the principal investigator of numerous initiatives
in Florida, including Florida’s Positive
Behavior Support Project, their School Climate
Transformation grant, and their Project AWARE. Dr. Kincaid
is also a collaborator on the Office
of Special Education Programs Technical Assistance Center for Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Supports. And we are
very much looking forward to his presentation
this afternoon. Dr. Kincaid, if you would
like to take it from here, we will listen in. (Dr. Don Kincaid)
Thank you very much. I’m excited to
share with you for a few minutes about Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports and talk about
how it connects with AWARE, how it connects
with mental health supports, and our agenda
for addressing that. So today, what we’ll
talk about in the next hour is looking at how PBIS
provides a team-based process for problem solving
and planning related to addressing behavior, as well as
mental health supports. And we’ll talk about
Multi-Tiered Systems of Support and how those behavior
and mental health and even academics
fit into that tier, those tiers. We’ll talk about how
those things are integrated within a comprehensive
multi-tiered system. And we’re going to have
a little bit of opportunity for you to share
some of your reactions to what you’re hearing,
as well as what you’re seeing within your states
or within the districts that you’re working with. One of the things
that we sometimes see is multi-tiered frameworks. And there’s multi-tiered
academic frameworks and we have a multi-tiered
behavioral framework we’ve been working
on at the national level in Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports. And although it’s not
labeled correctly exactly, multi-tiered
behavioral framework or mental health framework in an interconnected
systems framework. The challenge
that we have is many times, these resources and approaches are addressed
in a siloed fashion. You could even think
of these as silos of support, looking from above. And as they grow in terms of
the resource and the commitment and the results
that are produced, they tend to begin
to bump into each other and see how do we overlap
and how do we work together. The challenge
that we’ve come into and realized
in the last few years is that we really
need to have a system that integrates our
multi-tiered system framework so that we’re looking at
academic behavior and mental health. And the great thing
about the funding that has just
come in the last year is that the funding from
SAMHSA is really integral to embedding an
integrated systems framework. We’ll talk more about
that for mental health into that multi-tiered systems. And the School Climate
Transformation funding is looking at,
how do we make sure that behavior is involved
in that collaboration? This is really important
in the sense that we really
want to understand the whole child
and the whole student. And we really
aren’t going to just say, “You know, Johnny’s
got behavior problems, “but what if he has
mental health issues? “What if he also
has academic issues that need to be addressed?” We don’t want to deal with those
in separate formats or silos. We want to deal with those
in a more effective, integrated fashion. We know that we have
lots of students and lots of teachers and
personnel, 110,000 schools. These are not even
the most updated numbers from within the state or within
the country, United States, but we have quite an issue
with regard to discipline, with regard
to dealing with behavior. And so in that framework
is where the PBIS approach or Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports approach was founded and has grown
in the last few years. One of the things that we
like to talk about is, you know, our traditional approach
to discipline has really been
to stop problem behavior. And it engages in lots
of punishment procedures. And we still have a lot of those
present today in school systems. We do a lot of suspending,
expelling, referring, do a lot of punishing
procedures. What we try to do with the Positive Behavior Interventions
and Supports approach– and we’ll talk more
about it in a little bit– is to stop problems
or undesirable behavior by replacing with new skills
and new behaviors by teaching
appropriate behaviors by altering the environments. How do we prevent
problem behaviors from occurring
in the first place? And how do we make sure we’re recognizing
appropriate behaviors? How do we get more attention
to appropriate behaviors instead of spending
all of our time in ineffective strategies
to deal with problem behaviors? So the first little
quiz for you today or first thing to respond to is just a hands up
thing at the top. At the top, where you see
my status, go down and indicate whether you see
behavioral challenges in schools as decreasing or increasing
in frequency or severity. So go do that right now
and just indicate whether you have a thumbs up,
you think they’re increasing; or thumbs down, you think things are
getting better within schools. Okay, good. This is good to see, in fact. Many of you
are starting to indicate that things are
getting better in schools. And that’s many times– what we begin to see
in the last few years is that is the response
we’re seeing. We’re seeing things
starting to improve because they’ve implemented
effective strategies, building on that PBIS framework
or related frameworks to really look at a Multi-Tiered System
of Support for behavior. I would tell you
10 years ago, we would ask that
question within trainings or individuals
within conferences or within training events and we would never
have one hand raised saying things
are getting better. It was always
they were getting worse. So I think we’re
having some success just from that rough estimate of how people
perceive change occurring. Even though
things are getting better, we still see traditional
issues that need– that are coming up
from the data. We see schools
with lots of students with office
discipline referrals, or individual students
with lots of discipline issues. We see schools that have
problems with attendance, and the capacity
or the mental health of teachers because it’s a very difficult
environment to function in. And we see in this list that we also know that
African American students are almost four times as likely to be involved in
discipline issues. So even though
things are improving, we know that
we still have issues that we need
to address with behavior as we expand this
PBIS model across our system. One of the things
that I like to use in training is to get folks focused on
what is this PBIS approach is to really think about
how we deal with a child within our schools,
or a student. And I think this great quote
from now almost 20 years ago is relevant every day. It’s getting folks to refocus
how we deal with behavior. We teach reading,
math, driving, swimming. We teach all the skills
and we do a very good job of it within our school systems. But when we deal with behavior, do we really take
a teaching approach, a reinforcement approach? Or do we continue
to rely on punishment? We really want our schools
to begin to think about, how do we develop a
teaching approach for behavior that parallels an effective
teaching approach for math, for reading,
or any other subject matter? Some of the challenges
we have in school systems is doing more with less,
fewer resources, or students who
have very diverse needs that we’re dealing with. And students with
very challenging behavior that we may not
have dealt with before. And how do we
create environments that maintain from year to year? How do you do that
within a school that might have 40%
turnover in staff every year? How do we do that
with incomplete data systems that really don’t allow us
to know what’s going on and what’s being effective? And how do we identify
evidence-based interventions and how do we make sure we
implement those with fidelity? Those are some
common challenges that I think apply
to a lot of different things that we’re doing
within school systems. But we also know
that there are challenges specific to
mental health supports. The number of students that
need mental health supports, where they are able to access
those mental health supports. Are they available
in the community or is the school the
sole provider of those supports? Are there competing priorities? Is mental health really
being addressed effectively and efficiently within schools? Or is it put off to the side and not really acknowledged
as critical or important areas to address within schools
or within districts? So building on that, we
want to talk a little bit about some of those core principles
of Positive Behavior Support. And we’re going to make
some parallels between that and mental health supports
so that you can see how this Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports framework can incorporate
and should incorporate a mental health approach
very effectively. And the core principles of a Positive Behavior
Support approach is, of course, to build a team,
team-based processes at schools. It may be multi-tiered teams
or one team. And that we’re facilitating and
supporting effective leadership. That means coaching,
coaching at the school, coaching at the district. So there are leadership teams
at the school, leadership teams
at the district. PBIS is not intended
for one person to go in and fix the school. It’s about building leadership
teams within the school that include community members, family members,
and school personnel, in many cases
also including students. We want schools that effectively
engage in action planning and districts engaging
in action planning and problem solving to really
implement effective strategies across all of their schools or all of their school
environments. There have to be data systems
that allow a school and a district
to know what’s happening in a multi-tiered system. How many students
in the school are effective– is the Tier 1 system
effectively supporting? How many students
need Tier 2 supports? How effective are those systems? How many students are receiving
intensive behavioral supports? And are they working? Are we doing them well? Those are all questions
that are really critical to the implementation
of a PBIS approach. And that leads
into the next item. It’s fidelity of implementation. Are we doing this process,
the framework– the pieces of the framework
we’ll talk more about in just a little bit– are we doing
those with fidelity? Can we do it consistently
across all environments, across multiple days
and across the entire year? And to do that, one
of the things we have to do is to work smarter, not harder. We’ve really got to think about
the things we do that work and the things we do
that don’t work, and continue to do
and expand on those things that we know
are effective practice. Those include
prevention, teaching, and developing
effective consequences. And being ready
to discontinue strategies that are not effective and have not been effective
in the past. And in all tiers or all levels
of a multi-tiered system, whether it’s a multi-tiered
system for academics, for behavior,
or for mental health, is utilizing evidence-based
practices within those settings and utilizing
those with fidelity. So Positive Behavior
Interventions and Supports really consists
of a wide range of systemic and individualized strategies for looking at social
and learning outcomes, while preventing
problem behaviors. So it’s not just prevention
of problem behaviors, but how do we change
the school environment, the school climate,
teach appropriate behaviors, teach such things
as anti-bullying behaviors or teaching appropriate
mental health responses? All of those kind of
things are critical within this Positive Behavior Interventions
and Supports approach. Within that, we looked at
a tiered model of support for academics and behavior. But also we can see that
this tiered level of supports also can and should be applied
to mental health supports within school
and within a district. At Tier 1,
we’re really looking at, what are the academic
and behavioral instruction and mental health
instruction supports that should be supporting
all students in all settings of the school? Tier 2 is looking at
those supports for students that need a little bit
extra assistance. And Tier 3
is for those students who need most intensive
supports for behavior, academic, or mental health supports. That’s the quick foundation
of a multi-tiered model. And within that
is the understanding that within all levels, we’re engaging in
problem solving driven by our data to make decisions
supporting students. Within that triangle
that’s pretty typical, or something
most of us are familiar with, we have to realize that as the needs increase
into a multi-tiered system, the resources required, the needs to change
the environment or provide more structure
in the environment and the data collection
needs also increase. So the resources expended
at the top of that triangle are much more intensive,
more time-consuming, and require more funding
than at the bottom part, at that Tier 1 level
that impacts all students. So how does
that look in terms of what a Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3
support system looks like? It really looks at Tier 1
as addressing the needs of all students
within the system. We want the system
at the school for behavior to be effective with at least
80% of the students. If it’s not effective
with 80% of the students, then we have to question whether we’re
implementing with fidelity or we have
a good system of support for dealing
with behavior at Tier 1. We want to know what do
we want our students to do? How will we know
if they’re doing it? How will we know
if what we’re implementing is actually effective
with that student? So that’s the foundation
of support that all students benefit from within the system. Now we do that by looking
at some critical elements of a Tier 1 PBIS approach. And this is–
these are some of the things that are measured
within a typical measurement or implementation fidelity
tool used within the field, and that’s the
Benchmarks of Quality. There are several
different instruments that are used within the field. The Benchmarks of Quality is used a lot
as a self-assessment tool, measuring implementation
fidelity at the school level. But within this tool, we try to cover all the things
that are really critical for implementing
Tier 1 PBIS within a school. It’s really critical that you
identify your PBS team, that you have appropriate
administrative support and as critical,
foundational pieces for this process
to be effective. You also have to have
ongoing faculty commitment and participation
in the process. This is not a top-down,
imposed process by a team or administrator. It requires buy-in and support and implementation
by the faculties who are committed
to seeing change occur within their school. There’s a need to develop
effective discipline approaches, making sure
that we’re matching– if we’re going to have
consequences for behavior within our school,
that they match the requirement or the problem behavior,
the intensity or severity of that behavior problem. We don’t want to see those days
where a minor behavior issue results in
5- or 10-day suspensions. We really want to make sure that we have effective
discipline strategies that can also
keep a student in school, keep them
progressing academically so that they will graduate and
meet their academic timelines within the school. We’ve got to make sure
we have some data entry, understanding
what data we need to collect in terms of office discipline
referrals or other data that will tell us about
whether we’re being successful in implementation
of a Tier 1 PBIS system. We have to clearly identify the
expectations of all students. We actually suggest
that the expectations don’t apply to students. They apply to everyone
that comes within our school, all students, all staff,
all teachers, all personnel. These expectations,
they may be safe, be responsible, be respectful. What are those expectations? What do they look like? And what are
the specific rules and unique settings
of the school, such as the
hallway or the cafeteria, that help us achieve
those expectations? How do we develop a reward
or recognition program? This goes back to
what we talked about before. How do we reinforce or
recognize appropriate behavior? We are going to still have
effective discipline strategies, but our goal is not to
spend all of our time there. We really want to make sure
that we’re developing reward recognition programs
that are supporting of students. And then we actually
have to do it. How do we teach
appropriate behavior? Just like we teach math,
just like we teach reading, we’re going to teach behavior, appropriate behavior rules
and expectations within school. We’ve got
lots of things we can do in terms of
implementation planning. How do we schedule
activities and supports in a multi-tiered system? How do we provide additional
support in the classroom to address the implementation
components of a PBIS system? And how do we evaluate
our outcomes at a school level and also at a district level? So those are the critical
components that we measure many times in a Tier 1 system. And those critical components
also have some parallels in terms of a framework we’ll
talk about in just a moment. So after that Tier 1 system, we’re also going to look at
applying Tier 2 supplemental or targeted supports
for students that may be 20– or 15% or 20% of students that
need more intensive supports. And we also will talk
about those students who need more
intensive supports. That would be about
5% of all students, anywhere from 1%-5%. The challenge
and a critical feature in a Multi-Tiered System
of Support to understand is many times why we fail at
working in school systems is that the number of students
that are at the Tier 3 level is too high for the resources,
time, and energy that they need
for them to be successful. And that’s because
we’ve not done a good job of supporting students at a Tier 1 or a Tier 2
level of support. We have some students
in some schools we work with where project staff,
school psychologist, behavior analysts,
coaches for the schools say, “Before we started doing
a PBIS system within our school, “I was running around
putting out fires “for about 40 students. “Now that we’ve implemented
this process at Tier 1 “and Tier 2 effectively,
I now have five students “that need really
intensive levels of support. I can do that.” And in fact,
the entire school benefits when we take this Multi-Tiered
System of Support approach. So at Tier 2 and Tier 3,
we have some of the same issues to address for Tier 1
implementation. There do need to be active teams
that address the implementation. It could be
the same Tier 1 team, but it could be multiple teams, or one Tier 2
and Tier 3 team. There has to be
effective data systems to track progress monitoring, track individual
student performance at Tiers 2 and Tiers 3. We have to do some– have some ways
of screening students. Which students
really need support? What’s the priority? And which students
need what kind of support at Tiers 2 and Tiers 3? And when we had to
train those students, what are the
evidence-based interventions we’re going to provide? What do we know works? Are we going to do a
check-in/check-out program or mentoring programs
at Tier 2? Are we going to do an
intensive social skills training at Tier 3? How do we know which
interventions we should utilize based on their evidence
and their capacity to match the unique
needs of those students at Tiers 2 and Tiers 3? We also have to have some
very clear decision rules. Who, when, why, those are
critical issues for us. What are those? When do the
students access Tier 2? When are they successful? What’s the criteria for success? When do they
move out of that system? Those are all things
that a multi-tiered system will need to address
at Tiers 2 and Tiers 3, as well as developing
clear progress monitoring and data systems, and
evaluating two critical pieces: one,
the implementation fidelity. In other words, if John is in a
check-in/check-out program to support him at Tier 2 for
PBIS and he’s not successful, was the program
implemented as intended? We don’t want to
move John around if the issue is that he didn’t receive
the actual intervention. We’ve got to make sure that
we’ve got the interventions being implemented with fidelity and that we’re measuring
student outcomes efficiently and effectively to determine
whether we’re being successful. We have to do this across
not just individual students, but types of programs
to make sure that we’re not
continuing to do ineffective and inefficient strategies
at Tier 2 and Tier 3, and that we’re really
being able to match supports and provide
those supports effectively and efficiently for students so that they can produce
outcomes academically, behaviorally,
and social-emotionally. So I’m going to ask you a little
question here in the feedback. Do you understand some of
the basic elements of each tier of a PBIS system? I know I’ve given you a 5-minute
primer on all of PBS, PBIS. Was there anything
that I missed? Your feedback
doesn’t allow you to do that, but at least in the feedback
box give some idea as to whether you understand
some of those basic components. All right, before anybody
responds negatively, I’m going to stick with 100%. So everybody got exactly
what I was talking about, so that makes me
feel really good. Thank you all
for reinforcing me. Now I’m going to ask you
a more difficult question. Are the districts in
the states that you work with, are they developing PBIS systems that have all the necessary
components and elements? That multi-tiered system,
are they all in place? Are there parts of it
that are missing, maybe not doing Tier 2
as well, Tier 3? They’re really not supporting
different parts? Okay, good response rate
on that question. Okay, that’s a
good set of answers there. It’s really about a third
have responded maybe, a third to a quarter indicate
that we’ve got some issues with our districts
or within our state that still
need to be addressed. And others are saying we’re
really doing a pretty good job. We get the basic components. We’re doing it. Now some of you may have issues
with, okay, we’re doing it, but we’re not
doing it in every school, or we’re not doing it
in every district. And that’s where we want to
see PBIS extend and expand, and how we definitely
want that connection with AWARE to help support
that process for expansion and considering
the needs of all students with behavioral needs
as well as mental health needs. Let’s talk a little bit
about the systems issues that really go back
to support those elements we talked about before
because it’s really critical to understanding the foundation,
the framework of PBIS and how it can support
the mental health work that occurs within a district. I’d just like
to share a few quotes that let us know
that it’s important to change and that it’s very difficult. I like Woodrow Wilson’s quote, “If you want to make enemies,
try to change something.” Well, PBIS is about
systems change. It’s about keeping the things
that work, that we know work
and the data tell us work, but getting rid of those things
that don’t work and substituting new ways of–
new interventions, new systems, new supports
that will allow us to be more effective
with students. So it is
a challenge to do that and I think that’s
what we’re trying to do with the School Climate
Transformation grants, with our PBIS projects,
as well as with the AWARE grant. One of the things
in PBIS that is really critical to how we operate
is to understand the concept that there’s
an interrelationship of three important things. One of those is the systems,
the data, and the practices. Many times in the past,
we just talked about practice. “Well, let’s use this
intervention for students.” “Well, we’ve got
a great intervention.” There are lots of interventions
with lots of evidence. And those are all great. The question is,
do we have an appropriate system to make sure
that we can implement that? And that includes training
staff, supporting staff, making sure
it’s implemented with fidelity. And do we have data systems that tell us when
we use which intervention? For whom do we use it? Is it being implemented well? Is it producing the kind
of outcomes and results? One of the things that in
just this very simple graphic we want to communicate is it’s not just about
an evidence-based intervention. It’s not about
an effective practice. It’s about the systems
and the data that make it work. And that’s the
foundational piece where I believe the PBIS system
has really utilized science as well as practice in hundreds
and thousands of schools to identify some
appropriate ways to produce sustainable
and effective systems. One of the things
that we do within that is to consider the fact
that many times when we’re targeting an area,
we don’t really integrate and align all the systems
within that. For instance,
if we’re targeting a student, do we make sure
that that intervention matches the classroom, that
it’s matched within the school, to the kind of supports
that work at the district level? We really want to make sure
that we’re looking at the fact that even a student
operates within multiple systems and they impact the
delivery of support to students. And we have to be open to
addressing all of those things because, ultimately, they
impact the delivery of programs, supports, training
at the student level. Here is the PBIS systems
implementation logic, and I’ll take a moment
to kind of talk about this. We’ve developed this over
multiple years of collaboration and working with thousands
and thousands of schools and districts to
really understand that there are
critical components that have to be in place for
PBIS systems to be implemented. I think as we go
through this next section, you’ll begin to see
that these systems are not unique
to a behavioral strategy or approach or framework. They’re unique
to an academic approach. They’re unique to
a mental health approach. They’re unique to
a behavioral approach. Our goal
is to try to make sure that all these system
implementation logic approaches are able to
combine and integrate those needs of students. So across the top, you can see critical
things that are necessary for this process
to be effective. There does have to be some
funding in a PBIS system. The national center and
certainly at our state level, or district level, or through the School
Climate Transformation or the AWARE grant, there are funding supports
that are available that make and support
the implementation of more effective
behavioral strategies. There’s also
a need for visibility. It’s something that you
want to have examples. You want to go ahead
and have it be seen at a certain level within
a district or within a school. It’s something that is critical that it should be given
some priority within a district. There has to be
political support at either state or district
or at the school level from the principal
in order for our PBIS systems to be effective and efficient. And then there
also have to be policies about why we’re doing things
and how we do those things, and whether
that’s an appropriate way to engage or support students. A critical piece
is all of those are necessary, but individually
not one of them is sufficient. In fact, we’ve seen
many states that have a policy that each school has to do Positive Behavior
Intervention Support, and it was passed in legislation
and they were required to have those in place
within 2 months. Well, if you don’t have
some of the other pieces of this implementation
and logic in place, what tended to happen
in those situations is those initiatives died. There was a lot of very quick
spray and pray training, but there wasn’t the
kind of support system in place to maintain it and to make it
a useful and effective system. In addition,
there’s funding available, such as these AWARE grants
or other fundings from the School Climate
Transformation grants that can really be used to
implement effective practices. But if we don’t pay attention
to the implementation logic, we’re going to do
a lot of training, lots and lots of training, but we’re not going to have any
consistent, real systems change. We’re not going to
have sustainability because we’re
not paying attention to the implementation logic. All of those
top level activities, as well as
the other level activities, need a leadership team. And we pattern that leadership
team at the state level, at the district level,
and at the school level. Those all occur through
collaborative leadership teams of your best and your brightest
that can really help make systems change occur. And within
the leadership team, it’s translated to actual
support at the district or school level are several
areas of training, coaching facilitation, evaluation,
and behavioral expertise. Many times, what we see
is there’s lots of training, but what we found
in the system– and I’ll share with
you in a little bit– is that if we don’t have
effective coaching models at the school and at the
district, and even at the state, then many times we find
that training is not sufficient to maintain
sustainability of the process. We also have to have
an evaluation system. There has to be data–
has to be data collected that will tell us whether
we’re being effective or not in what we’re doing. And for a PBS system, there needs to be
behavioral expertise. And in a mental health system, there will be mental
health expertise or academic expertise
necessary to really embed that within the support provided. And finally, there
have to be local schools or demonstration, where you’re not going to
start with implement this with 100 schools next week. You’re going to build the
capacity within your district in a very thoughtful
and effective way. Districts that say, “We want
to have everybody trained by next–or 300 schools
trained within the next month,” are generally not very
successful at implementation because they haven’t
built the structures necessary to support that
in the long term. May talk a little bit more
about that. This is a graphic from–
I think it’s from Rob Horner, one of my colleagues. And it’s supposed to move,
but it doesn’t move, so let me explain
how this is supposed to look. Many times,
we have implementation, either mental health,
behavior, academic ideas or strategies that
state or national experts say, “These are our policies,
our expectations, “and we’re going to provide
you monetary incentives to accomplish those.” And there’s a demand for it too. Schools are wanting it. We want effective
strategies for discipline. We want effective
mental health strategies. And the challenge
is that many times when those two things
begin to come together, it’s very difficult
to sustain large scale, high fidelity implementation. The reason for that is because we haven’t built
the technical consistence– technical assistance
capacity of a state or a district or even a school. And along the right side are those things
that kind of build that bridge or build the supports necessary for having funding
and policies, as well as tremendous demand
for these services and supports at a district level
or a state level. There has to be
effective trainers with that behavioral expertise. There have to be measures
of student outcomes and fidelity of implementation. There has to be
that coaching approach that we were talking about. Individuals that are responsible
for supporting the district– supporting
a school to be effective, supporting
a district to be effective, and even coaching at the
state level to support the state to engage in the processes
that it needs to. And how do we define
and change roles at the system so that those kind of changes
occur across our system? We look at what
we’ve learned a lot and contributed a lot to the implementation
science approach. We realize that it’s important
in a PBIS approach, as well as with any
systems chance approach, to realize that you’re going
to go through certain stages if you want to be effective. You’re not going to start
with 10,000 schools. You’re going to
start with exploring, “How do we do this?
How do we get commitment? How do we get consensus?
Should we be doing this?” Whether it’s a PBIS approach or a mental health approach
within our schools. And then we’re going to
talk about, “Okay, “if we have an agreement
that we’re going to do it, “how do we do it right? “How do we make sure
that we install that “and we implement it
appropriately so we’ve got it in place.” We’ve got some good exemplars
that can show that this works. And that’s really critical
to getting buy-in from other schools
if to show this works. In our PBIS system,
I can’t tell you how many times I’ve presented information
on schools and gotten, “That will work, but it would
never work in our school. We’re different.” And I would say,
“Well, how are you different?” “Well, we’re an urban school.” “Okay,
here’s 300 urban schools.” “Well, we’re
an urban high school.” “Oh, okay,
we’ve got 100 of those.” “Well, we’re an
urban high school that has 6,000 students.” “Okay, we’ve got
seven of those.” So it’s possible
to impact this process and this process can
impact any environment as an effective–
as effective strategies. And then what we find is it’s
not just about doing it right. It’s also about doing it better. How do we move towards implementing across
all schools within a district or with all districts
within a state, and doing it more
efficiently and effectively? This is a really
critical piece to understand is many of you may be at various
stages in this process. Some of you
are just now exploring, “How do we build
our PBIS system?” Some of you are saying,
“Okay, we’ve got some PBIS. “We’ve got a lot of schools in
our state that are doing PBIS, “but we really want to make
sure that we’re embedding mental health within that
multi-tiered system of support.” And some of you
are already saying, “We’ve always
been doing that. “Now we’re at the point of,
how do we do it better? “How do we make sure that
we’re addressing academics, “behavior, and mental health
within our schools across all peers
effectively and efficiently?” So a couple of things that we’ve
learned in terms of building and sustaining capacity
for implementation is there’s the PBIS
implementation blueprint, as well as other resources
on the PBIS website. It’s www.pbis.org. And it will talk to you about– you know,
share with you about how to go through
implementation phases. What do you
need to do to get started? How do you need to– what do you need
to pay attention to in the implementation phase
or the scale-up phase? But it’s really critical to pay
attention to leadership teams, effective demonstrations
of systems and multi-tiered systems, and how do you
develop that capacity for sustainable implementation. So it’s not based on one person,
they’re holding it all together. How do you make sure
that you build redundancy and support
into your systems so that, regardless of
whether a superintendent leaves or you lose a coach or you
lose a district contact person, that system will continue. And finally,
from implementation science we really learn
about effective practices and how to build teams,
and the drivers that we need for sustainability, such as
coaching and also data systems and other things
that are necessary for us to be effective. Here’s an example
of that from Fixsen and Blase in their looking
at implementation science as some of those drivers
that we really build on: competency drivers,
organizational drivers, and leadership drivers. What are the things that
really have to be addressed if we’re going to implement
evidence-based practices with fidelity and sustain
those within a school system? One of the things
that I want to point out is there’s only one of those
right here that’s training. What we tend to do a lot of
times in our educational systems and in other systems too is we
put a lot of time into training. But if we don’t put
as much time or more time into identifying and actively
selecting schools or districts that are ready to implement,
preparing them to implement, coaching them
through the process, evaluating their implementation,
giving them the data systems they need
to make decisions, and supporting
any other systems change, such as redefining
job descriptions so it becomes integral to their
way of work within a school or within a district, we’re
not likely to be successful. So this is really critical
for us to consider all of these variables
when we begin to think about
implementation fidelity. Just a couple
real quick things to show us how we’ve applied those things
within the PBIS system. Within the last year,
we’ve gone almost to 22,000, probably to 22,000 now schools that have been identified
as using a PBIS approach. We also have 14 states
with more than 500 schools that are implementing. We also have
many of those states where those schools
are implementing with a very
high level of fidelity across at least one tier, and in many schools
across multiple tiers. What we talk about is,
as we begin this process and you probably realize this if
you scaled up within a district or as you scaled up
within a state, is that generally you’re going
to spend maybe 10% of your time getting your
initial district started. If you have 100 schools
within your district, getting the first 10 going
takes a great deal of time to identify
feasibility and impact and get buy-in and work
through a lot of systems issues. Then you begin to think about, “Okay, for the next
10 to 40 schools, “how do I make it
work it better? “How do we increase the speed? “How do we make sure
we’re training coaches and trainers and looking at
outcomes across those schools?” And then finally,
as we begin to scale up, we begin to look
at what are the things we have to do with our system? How do we get buy-in
at the school, at the state, and district level? What data do we need
across a multi-tiered system? It’s not just about
implementing Tier 1 in all 100 of our schools,
but how do we make sure they’re doing a behavioral
approach across all 3 tiers, and looking at mental health, and integrating that
with academics? So when I talk about
tipping point, the point of that
is for those of us that are engaged in
providing support at the state level
or even at a district level, one of the things
we need to realize is that it’s not–
there are no shortcuts. It’s not a social phenomenon that as soon as we train
a couple of schools, everybody else will do it, and
we can just sit back and watch. If anything, it gets more
and more complex all the time. We really have to understand
systems change and realize that, as you move from 5 schools
to 20 schools to 200 schools, you’re going to
continue to engage in lots of different activities
to support those schools, whether it’s implementing
behavioral supports or mental health supports. Okay, I’m going to
do another feedback of seeing if you
understand what I meant by that tipping point question. Basically, do you understand
that it’s not a question of that you can kind of
just put something in place and let it go? All right, good, looks like
everybody is understanding the fact that it takes
even more and more work to implement
a larger and larger system as you engage
in multi-tiered supports, putting together integration
of academic behavior and mental health supports. So that’s good. That’s the message
we wanted to get clear. We also want you to understand
that link between academic, behavioral,
and mental health supports. A good thing that we see here is effective
and efficient Tier 1 systems, putting that into place, that effective and
efficient Tier 1 systems for mental health,
for behavior, or for academics. Universal screening
for all of those. Using data for intervention. Evidence-based strategies at Tiers 1 and Tiers 2
and Tier 3. How do you progress monitor and how do you provide fidelity
monitoring within your system? Now a school-based
mental health approach is going to build on
those universal supports just like a PBIS approach. It’s going to look at social-emotional
learning curriculum, policies, responses to bullying,
classroom routines. Basically, how do we embed
mental health concerns and mental health issues
within our Tier 1 training, teaching support system
for behavior? It’s accessing the
additional support and care that students need
across the multi-tiered system. There’s also
that additional need to reduce the stigma
of accessing, acknowledging, recognizing mental health
needs of students. And how do we promote
that generalization of supports and build the
community connections so that students
receive support in school, in their communities,
within their homes? And a realization
that mental health is a precondition for learning, just as behavior
is a precondition for learning. If a student is not present
within the classroom, they’re not going to learn. Very simple
kind of an understanding. Well, they can be
absent from that classroom for mental health needs, for behavioral needs,
other issues. They can also be present
and still not engaged because of mental health
or behavioral needs. And we need to make sure that
we’re addressing all of those in a multi-tiered system. So that multi-tiered system
provides that framework of integrating mental health
supports with wellness and looking at behavioral,
social, emotional issues of students. And there are
multiple ways of doing that and multiple models
exist for that, but I’m going to
talk a little bit about integrated systems framework
in just a moment. So here are some of
the basic ideas that we have about PBIS and
school-based mental health, what they share in common. There’s a multi-tiered system
of support. There’s clearly
a need for data, for data-based problem solving
and decision making. They’re both requiring us
to train and provide workshop developments,
train our school personnel, as well as community members on multi-tiered
behavioral supports as well as
mental health supports, recognizing students
that need additional needs. There have to be effective
interdisciplinary or effective teaming
to address those issues within a school
and within a district. There’s also early
identification screening necessary and progress
monitoring to determine whether the supports
we’re providing at any tier, Tiers 1 through 3, for academic, behavior,
or mental health are actually working. And whether we need
to make some changes or modifications
to supports we’re providing. There’s also a need
for cultural competence to make sure that,
at the local level, at the school level, as well as at the
individual student level, we’re addressing issues
of mental health as well as behavioral health
from a cultural-sensitive and cultural-competence view. We also want to make sure
that we’re involving families and youth in the process, that they’re contributing
to what’s being developed within your school
and across those tiers. Having family members
in the community involved in integrating
mental health as well as behavioral supports
is really critical to building
and sustaining that capacity. Identifying
evidence-based strategies and how do you select those
across multiple tiers is common to
a behavioral approach, as well as
a mental health approach. And then how do you implement
effectively and efficiently, and make sure that you’re
providing adequate coaching so that you’re engaging
in an appropriate process? So an expanded school
mental health approach will really look at
addressing supports for students
and all school staff for a full continuum
of supports, developing the kind
of collaborative relationships that will really allow you to
embed evidence-based practices not just at the home,
but in the family and the community setting. And how do you develop
problem solving teams that go beyond
just a school or classroom? Maybe district level
or even state level problem solving teams that will really allow you to
address mental health supports for students across
a multi-tiered approach. So our goal is to really
look at school mental health or systems of care, combined with a
multi-tiered system of support within Interconnected
Systems Framework, which really looks at
that multi-tiered mental health supports. And here are some of
the characteristics of that across three tiers. All things we’ve
talked about before: providing skill development,
prevention, changing the environment, creating safe and
caring learning environments, partnering with the community. And in Tier 2, we’re looking
at array of support services that are able
to early identify students and build skills at an
individual and group level. And at Tier 3, we
might be looking at wraparound or intensive
supports for students initiated through
effective interagency teams that can truly address
multiple needs of students that might be both behavioral,
mental health, or also academic. And so what I’d like you
to do now in the chat area is just anything you’ve
seen as common themes or connections
between the PBIS approach and a mental health approach, or Interconnected
Systems Framework, that you may not
have considered before. You’d be putting that
over here into the chat area. Okay, getting some
good responses from folks. I see some
folks are responding. Okay, as you continue
to respond to that, let me move on to
a couple of summary points. So a PBIS approach is one
approach to developing a multi-tiered system
of support for behavior. It is a framework. It’s not a particular program. It’s a framework for support and multiple programs
may be able to accomplish those same goals. But it’s very necessary
for effective education. We work at the district level
for the most part. We want to make sure
districts support schools in the implementation
of a PBIS system. You’re very seldom
going to be able to work school by school unless you got
district buy-in to the approach. And that delivery
and sustainability of a scalable PBS system, PBIS system really require you to develop
a training and coaching and evaluation expertise, evaluating the
fidelity of implementation. And it’s really critical
that your PBIS efforts begin to connect
to mental health and begin to look at
juvenile justice issues. How do you involve
not just students that have mental health issues,
but also students that are involved
in juvenile justice connections? And how do you make sure that you’re building
at the state level and at the district level,
aligning, embedding, and adapting
these core features, but doing it across
both mental health and– across academic, mental health,
and behavioral need within your students,
schools, and districts. Any questions or comments
that you might want to make, you can type them into
the chat line, chat section, and we’ll try
to respond to those. And I think
I have only a minute left. Feel free to contact your– the TA Center
for additional information. You can also contact the
PBIS Center for more information about who is a resource
to your state in terms
of implementation of PBIS. And if you want to contact me and learn any more about
what we’re doing in Florida as well as in other states,
feel free to do that with my contact information
that’s there. Feel free to contact me with any follow-up questions
you might have. And I appreciate an opportunity
to give you about 45 minutes or 50 minutes of overview of a PBIS connection
with mental health and the AWARE process. Thank you.

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