Protein synthesis Animation – translation initiation in prokaryotes


Translation is a process whereby the base
sequence of the messenger RNA is converted into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide
this process involves an mRNA tRNAs amino acids are ribosome and other accessory proteins
and RNA consists of three main parts proportion from the five prime end to the translation
start codon is the five prime untranslated leader region were simply called the leader
the central portion is called the reading frame it commences with the start codon AUG
followed by a series of three nucleotide codons each of which specifies an amino acid and
it ends with one of the stop codons UAA Yu AG or UG a the final portion of the mRNA consists
of the section from the stop codon to the three prime and carve the three prime untranslated
trailer sequence were simply called the trailer mRNA is very in length because of differences
in all three parts of this molecule) RNA functions to bring amino acids to the growing polypeptide
during translation consists of a single RNA chain of about 75 to 90 nucleotides each tRNA
having a different sequence of bases after it is transcribed the tRNA folds up into a
characteristic cloverleaf structure the energy codon contains a three nucleotide sequence
that is complementary to a codon on the mRNA the amino acid is attached to the three prime
free and at the top of the cloverleaf ribosome assembles amino acids into a polypeptide ribosomes
consist of two parts a large subunit and a small subunit ribosomal is made of ribosomal
RNA in various proteins the active ribosome contains three tRNA binding sites namely exit
PE to deal and a amino ACL in prokaryotes translation initiation occurs in three steps
as follows first the small ribosomal subunit three is subunit complexes with three proteins
named initiation factor why an initiation factor to and initiation factor three molecule
of GTP also attaches the ribosome AIF GTP complex recognises a sequence in the leader
of stream of the AUG start codon sequences called the ribosome binding site or the shine
dog gonna sequence after its discoverer’s sequences complementary to a sequence of the
three prime end of the 16 S ribosomal RNA of the 30 as ribosomal subunit and serves
to align the ribosome on the mRNA in its proper reading frame sack and translation begins
at the start codon AUG a few bases downstream of the ribosome binding site of the first
AUG and proteins specifies a modified form of methionine this modification consists that
the addition of a formyl group to methionine making it for new methionine; of this initiator
tRNA containing as Matt complements AUG upon binding of asthma tRNA to mRNA three is released
with the remaining assembled components called the 30 as initiation complex lastly the large
ribosomal subunit 50 as subunit binds to the 30 as initiation complex GTP is hydrolysed
and I have one and AIF to a released the final complexes called the 70 as initiation complex
the map tRNA is now situated in the piece side of the ribosome with it and I: hydrogen
bonded to the mRNA start codon initiation is now complete and elongation for

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